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Metagenesis
in
Obelia sp.
Presented
by
Debolina
Saha
What is Metagenesis?
? It is True alternation of generations occurs where a diploid asexually
reproducing generation alternate with a sexual haploid generation.
? Example: Metageneis is shown in Obelia sp.(a Cnidarian)
Obelia sp. – A Brief introduction about it
Obelia sp. – A Brief introduction about
it
? Commonly known as Sea- Fur
? Obelia is sedentary, marine colonial form found attached on the surface of sea weeds,
molluscan shells, rocks and wooden piles in shallow water .
? Each colony of Obelia consists of a horizontal thread-like root called hydrorhiza which is
attached to a weed or any substratum. From hydrorhiza arises a vertical branching stem
about 2.5 cm long which is known as a hydrocaulus. The hydrorhiza and hydrocaulus are
hollow tubes.
? The hydrocaulus bears zooids or polyps on either side in a cymose formation. Each polyp
has a stem and a terminal head called a hydranth. The hydranths are feeding polyps, they
feed by capturing minute animals and larvae. Towards the base of the hydrocaulus in the
axils of the polyps, are reproductive polyps called blastostyles.
? The entire colony is covered by a tough, yellow chitin secreted by the ectoderm, this
covering is known as perisarc. The perisarc around a blastostyle is a gonotheca, the
blastostyle and gonotheca are together called a gonangium.
? The Obelia is a trimorphic colony, that is, having three kinds of zooids which are as
follows:
1. Polyps or hydranths (nutritive zooids);
2. Gonangia or blastostyles (budding zooids);
3. Medusae (sexual zooids).
Polyp and Medusa- the Asexual and
Sexual stages of Obelia sp.
Metagenesis-in life cycle of Obelia sp.
? Life History of Obelia sp. includes both asexual and sexual generations that
alternate with each other to complete the life cycle.
? The germ cells originate in the ectoderm of the manubrium quite early when the
medusa itself remains attached to the blastostyle
? When the gonads are ripe, ectodermal covering ruptures and the germ cells are
shed in water. The ova are large rounded cells. The sperms are minute, actively
swimming flagellated cells. The medusae die soon after liberating the gametes.
? Fertilization occurs either in the sea water where the germ cells are set free, or the
spermatozoa may be carried by water currents to the female medusae and fertilize
the ova in situ. Zygote formed after fertilization, immediately undergoes cleavage.
? The cleavage is holoblastic and a blastula is formed.
Metagenesis-in life cycle of Obelia sp.
? By invagination the blastula is converted into an oval, ciliated planula larva.
? The planula consists of an outer layer of ciliated ectoderm and an inner mass of
endoderm cells enclosing a space, the rudiment of coelenteron.
? The planula swims freely for a brief period and settles down on some submerged
substratum by one end.
? The proximal end gradually narrows down and a disc appears for attachment. The
distal end expands and by developing a manubrium and a circlet of tentacles, it
turns to a hydrula or simple polyp.
? The hydrula sends out lateral buds and, by a repetition of this process, it is
converted into a complex obelia colony.
Alternation of Generations of Obelia sp.
? A distinct alternation of generations or metagenesis is present in the life history of
Obelia. The Obelia colony is sexless, bears no gonads and develops by asexual
process, i.e. by repeated budding of the hydrula.
? But the medusae buds, some of the zooids of the colony, develop gonads and, from
their fertilized egg, new Obelia colony arises. The asexual generation is dependent
on, and is alternated by the sexual generation.
? Obelia is a permanently fixed colony but the planula larvae it produces are free
swimming. Thus, a non-locomotory species becomes locomotory.
Thank you..

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Metagenesis-in-Obelia-sp.pptx

  • 2. What is Metagenesis? ? It is True alternation of generations occurs where a diploid asexually reproducing generation alternate with a sexual haploid generation. ? Example: Metageneis is shown in Obelia sp.(a Cnidarian)
  • 3. Obelia sp. – A Brief introduction about it
  • 4. Obelia sp. – A Brief introduction about it ? Commonly known as Sea- Fur ? Obelia is sedentary, marine colonial form found attached on the surface of sea weeds, molluscan shells, rocks and wooden piles in shallow water . ? Each colony of Obelia consists of a horizontal thread-like root called hydrorhiza which is attached to a weed or any substratum. From hydrorhiza arises a vertical branching stem about 2.5 cm long which is known as a hydrocaulus. The hydrorhiza and hydrocaulus are hollow tubes. ? The hydrocaulus bears zooids or polyps on either side in a cymose formation. Each polyp has a stem and a terminal head called a hydranth. The hydranths are feeding polyps, they feed by capturing minute animals and larvae. Towards the base of the hydrocaulus in the axils of the polyps, are reproductive polyps called blastostyles. ? The entire colony is covered by a tough, yellow chitin secreted by the ectoderm, this covering is known as perisarc. The perisarc around a blastostyle is a gonotheca, the blastostyle and gonotheca are together called a gonangium. ? The Obelia is a trimorphic colony, that is, having three kinds of zooids which are as follows: 1. Polyps or hydranths (nutritive zooids); 2. Gonangia or blastostyles (budding zooids); 3. Medusae (sexual zooids).
  • 5. Polyp and Medusa- the Asexual and Sexual stages of Obelia sp.
  • 6. Metagenesis-in life cycle of Obelia sp. ? Life History of Obelia sp. includes both asexual and sexual generations that alternate with each other to complete the life cycle. ? The germ cells originate in the ectoderm of the manubrium quite early when the medusa itself remains attached to the blastostyle ? When the gonads are ripe, ectodermal covering ruptures and the germ cells are shed in water. The ova are large rounded cells. The sperms are minute, actively swimming flagellated cells. The medusae die soon after liberating the gametes. ? Fertilization occurs either in the sea water where the germ cells are set free, or the spermatozoa may be carried by water currents to the female medusae and fertilize the ova in situ. Zygote formed after fertilization, immediately undergoes cleavage. ? The cleavage is holoblastic and a blastula is formed.
  • 7. Metagenesis-in life cycle of Obelia sp. ? By invagination the blastula is converted into an oval, ciliated planula larva. ? The planula consists of an outer layer of ciliated ectoderm and an inner mass of endoderm cells enclosing a space, the rudiment of coelenteron. ? The planula swims freely for a brief period and settles down on some submerged substratum by one end. ? The proximal end gradually narrows down and a disc appears for attachment. The distal end expands and by developing a manubrium and a circlet of tentacles, it turns to a hydrula or simple polyp. ? The hydrula sends out lateral buds and, by a repetition of this process, it is converted into a complex obelia colony.
  • 8.
  • 9. Alternation of Generations of Obelia sp. ? A distinct alternation of generations or metagenesis is present in the life history of Obelia. The Obelia colony is sexless, bears no gonads and develops by asexual process, i.e. by repeated budding of the hydrula. ? But the medusae buds, some of the zooids of the colony, develop gonads and, from their fertilized egg, new Obelia colony arises. The asexual generation is dependent on, and is alternated by the sexual generation. ? Obelia is a permanently fixed colony but the planula larvae it produces are free swimming. Thus, a non-locomotory species becomes locomotory.
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