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Lecturer;
#
Professor;
*Corresponding author: E-mail: rf.farhad73@gmail.com;
J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023
Journal of Economics, Management and Trade
Volume 29, Issue 8, Page 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
ISSN: 2456-9216
(Past name: British Journal of Economics, Management & Trade, Past ISSN: 2278-098X)
Impact of Effective Performance
Appraisal Systems on Employee
Motivation and Retention in Private
Banking Industry of Bangladesh
Md. Farhad Hossain a++*
and Nazrul Islam b#
a
Faculty of Business Administration, EXIM Bank Agricultural University Bangladesh, Bangladesh.
b
Faculty of Business, Northern University Bangladesh, Bangladesh.
Authors’ contributions
This work was carried out in collaboration between both authors. Both authors read and approved the
final manuscript.
Article Information
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2023/v29i81111
Open Peer Review History:
This journal follows the Advanced Open Peer Review policy. Identity of the Reviewers, Editor(s) and additional Reviewers,
peer review comments, different versions of the manuscript, comments of the editors, etc are available here:
https://www.sdiarticle5.com/review-history/99322
Received: 01/04/2023
Accepted: 09/05/2023
Published: 24/05/2023
ABSTRACT
Aims: Healthy economic development requires properly managing the banking industry of any
country. Along with state-owned banks, private banks play a critical role in the country's economy.
Managers in all types of banks now confront the same challenge: how to get the utmost output from
their employees. Therefore, Performance appraisal appears to be inevitable since it set the
standard for comparing actual performance to established objectives and recommending practical
solutions that help the organization achieve sustainable growth. Therefore, the purpose of this
research is to determine the effect of performance appraisal on employee motivation and retention.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the private banking industry of
Bangladesh between November 01, 2022, to March 30, 2023. The study duration was determined
Original Research Article
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
9
based on the scope of the research project and the availability of time and resources to complete it
within the designated timeframe.
Methodology: A random sampling method was used to conduct the study through a structured
questionnaire among 110 employees from various private banks. Questionnaires were used to
collect quantitative data, which was then analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences
(SPSS) 25.0 software.
Results: Major findings of the study indicate that performance appraisal is critical for employee
motivation and employees perceived performance appraisal as a fair procedure, which increased
their motivation and retention. Compensation and reward, and feedback are also perceived
positively by the employees, which motivate them to stay in the banks.
Conclusion: There is a recommendation that banks should review the appraisal process regularly,
improve the feedback policy, introduce an effective reward system, provide the opportunity to
employees for career development and empowerment, and maintain a participative environment.
Keywords: Economic development; performance appraisal; sustainable growth; compensation and
reward; feedback policy; career development; empowerment.
1. INTRODUCTION
The beginning of the 21st century saw a rapid
business change to attract and retain talent.
Globalization, technology abuse, and increased
competitiveness are all contributing factors.
Performance appraisal is one of the most
important aspects in motivating workers to put
forth their maximum efforts in generating creative
ideas that contribute to a stronger company
functioning and improved financial and non-
financial effectiveness [1]. Identifying, measuring,
and monitoring the output of people in firms is
what performance evaluation comprises.
Employees can be motivated and their
performance can be improved by using
performance assessments [2]. By highlighting,
where an employee's capabilities are and noting
issues that still need work, an assessor may
assist concentrate an employee's attention on a
track that will create the most beneficial results.
Reinforcing actions that have resulted in strong
good outcomes should also encourage the
individual to keep performing in this manner [3].
Managers in all types of banks encounter the
same challenge: how to take full advantage of
their workforce. As a result, performance
appraisal appears to be inescapable. People will
naturally, informally, and indiscriminately defend
the job performance of others, even
subordinates, without the presence of a properly
planned procedure of appraisal. Without a
systematic assessment system, the human
tendency to judge can result in severe
motivating, moral, and regulatory problems in the
workplace. Without a systematic assessment
system, there is no way to ensure that the
decisions made are legitimate, equitable,
rational, and reliable. In light of this, the focus of
this research is to find out how performance
appraisal affects employee motivation and
retention in the private banking industry of
Bangladesh.
1.1 Literature Review
Anjum, N. &. [4] investigates the prevailing
performance appraisal system and promotion
policy of selected public commercial in
Bangladesh. Through interviews with six
experienced professional employees from
different banks, the study revealed that these
banks mainly rely on the ACR method for
performance evaluation and promotion, except
for Agrani Bank which recently implemented the
PER method - an automated system and
software for evaluating employee performance.
However, the absence of formal feedback
procedures in public banks hinders employees
from recognizing their performance gaps and
areas for growth. The study also found that
performance evaluations often depend on senior
personnel, particularly the manager's perception
of their employees, favoring those with good
relationships with their managers. The authors
recommended that public commercial banks
should be more mindful of their entire process of
assessing employee performance to remain
competitive and secure in the market. They
suggested that banks should focus on feedback
policies for performance appraisals and yearly
reviews to monitor the real quality of
performance increase expected from employees.
Islam, M. A. [5] found In the commercial banking
sector of Bangladesh's Rajshahi division,
research was done to determine the impact of
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
10
Management by Objectives (MBO) on staff
satisfaction and performance evaluation. A
sample of 60 workers from 33 commercial banks
participated in the study and was asked to
respond to a self-administered questionnaire.
The study's findings showed a strong correlation
between employee satisfaction and performance
evaluations (r=0.715). This shows that when
performance reviews are done well, they may
increase employee happiness, which raises
productivity and effectiveness throughout the
company. The study also found that proper
reward mechanisms play a crucial role in
enhancing employee satisfaction levels. Although
most commercial banks applied the MBO
approach, the study highlighted that achieving
desired goals could sometimes be challenging.
Therefore, it is essential for management or
higher authorities to properly utilize the MBO
method, as clear communication of objectives
and a positive attitude towards achieving goals
among employees are critical factors for the
success of the MBO approach. Overall, the study
provides valuable insights into the importance of
MBO in managing employee performance and
highlights the need for effective communication,
reward mechanisms, and proper implementation
of the MBO approach to increase employee
satisfaction and organizational effectiveness.
Al-Jedaia, Y. &. [6] discovered that employee
motivation and job performance share a positive
correlation, with the purpose and evaluation of
performance appraisals playing a significant role
in motivating employees to perform better.
Interestingly, the study indicated that neither
leadership style nor performance rating
standards had any effect on employee motivation
or performance. The study used a survey-based
descriptive research approach to gather 294
answers to investigate the effect of performance
assessment on job performance in Qatar's
government sector.
Setiawati, T. &. [7] Conducted a study to explore
how performance appraisal fairness and job
satisfaction can impact job performance through
employee commitment. 187 employees
participated in the study and provided their
responses to questionnaires. The collected data
were analyzed using a t-test, F-test, multiple
linear regression, and path analysis. The findings
of the study revealed that performance appraisal
fairness and job satisfaction positively and
significantly influence employee commitment,
both partially and simultaneously. Based on their
results, the authors suggest that organizations
should ensure that their performance appraisal
system is fair and just when assessing employee
output, as this can lead to increased employee
retention and morale.
Ugoani, J. [8] undertook a study to delve into the
link between employee productivity and
performance appraisal. Through exploratory
research design, data was gathered from 109
participants and analyzed, leading to a significant
finding of a strong positive correlation (R =
0.790) between performance appraisal and
employee productivity. The study emphasizes
the importance of providing regular feedback to
employees and suggests that organizations
should assess their strengths and weaknesses
before assigning any new responsibilities.
Ugoani's study sheds light on the crucial role of
performance appraisal in driving employee
productivity and offers valuable
recommendations for organizations seeking to
optimize their management practices.
Upadhyay, R. K. [9] demonstrated a positive and
significant correlation between performance
appraisal and team effectiveness in the service
sector. The findings also revealed that employee
relations partially mediate this relationship, and
employee satisfaction moderates the association
between performance appraisal and employee
relations. The authors recommend that
organizations implement a well-designed
appraisal system to improve productivity and
remain competitive. Failure to do so may lead to
a decline in employee satisfaction and a failure to
achieve organizational objectives.
Ahmad, A. D. [10] conducted a study to look at
how employee work satisfaction is affected by
assessment and incentive systems. 250
participants completed a standardized
questionnaire that the researchers then used
statistical methods including regression analysis,
correlation analysis, descriptive analysis, and t-
tests to examine. The results revealed a contrast
between the reward system and employee work
satisfaction, which had a positive link. The
authors also discovered that employee
performance was positively impacted by both the
incentive and assessment systems. In light of
these findings, the authors suggested that top-
level management, in the absence of a reward
and appraisal system, take into account
additional factors, such as manager attitudes, the
working environment, and coworker behavior, to
ensure the best possible employee output and
achieve sustainability.
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
11
Aleem, M. &. [11] researched how performance
reviews relate to staff retention and
organizational engagement in Pakistan's banking
industry. The researcher gathered information
from 24 managers who were employed by eight
of Pakistan's largest banks. For the analysis,
themes, and nodes were used for the qualitative
portion, and the correlation matrix and regression
were used for the quantitative portion. According
to the findings, performance evaluation
significantly affects employee retention and
organizational commitment. This research
underlines the need of having a sound
performance assessment system to boost
employee engagement and retention in
Pakistan's banking industry. As a
recommendation, the authors suggested that
banks should periodically review their quota
system to ensure an acceptable performance
appraisal system and focus on feedback policies
to improve employee commitment and retention.
Vashistha, N. &. [12] analyzed data collected
from 150 employees from several public and
private sector banks which allowed researchers
to examine the relationship between
performance evaluation and employee
motivation. The purpose of the study was to
examine how motivation levels among bank
employees were impacted by performance
evaluations. The study discovered a strong and
positive correlation between employee motivation
and performance assessment. These results
highlight how important efficient performance
assessment systems are for raising employee
motivation levels in the banking sector. So, to
increase employee engagement and accomplish
organizational objectives, businesses should give
top priority to designing and implementing an
efficient performance assessment system. The
authors suggest that organizations can enhance
their employees' motivation by ensuring a proper
appraisal system and feedback mechanism. The
authors recommend that the more an
organization invests in establishing an effective
appraisal system and feedback loop, the greater
the potential to motivate their employees.
Nawaz, M. S. [13] conducted a study to explore
the impact of the fairness of performance
appraisal and career growth on turnover
intention. The study collected data from 150
employees from diverse organizations and
utilized the structural equation modeling (SEM)
path analysis technique for analysis. The results
of the study indicated that to retain talented
employees, organizations need to have a proper
appraisal system in place and offer ample
opportunities for career development. The study
also found that a good promotional strategy can
help organizations achieve optimal performance
from their employees. Based on their findings,
the authors recommend that organizations
should prioritize developing a fair and effective
appraisal system, offering opportunities for
career growth, and implementing a solid
promotional strategy to enhance employee
retention and performance.
Kabir, M. A. [14] conducted an empirical survey
to gather the opinions of private commercial bank
executives in Bangladesh about various areas of
performance evaluation schemes. They collected
data from three prominent banks through a
structured questionnaire, which included an
interview and Likert's 5-point scale questions.
The study revealed that all three banks prioritize
developing their employees' knowledge of
institutional values and interpersonal skills such
as proactive leadership, initiative, drive, and
judgment in decision-making for effective
customer problem-solving. However, the study
also found that these banks paid less attention to
organizational and customer behavioral aspects
such as employee participation, building
professionalism, training and development, and
communication. The authors recommend that
banks should increase their focus on employee
morale related to performance assessment
schemes and create a positive working
environment for learning.
Rahim, S. A. [15] conducted a study to assess
the performance appraisal system of Mercantile
Bank Limited by surveying 80 employees from its
20 branches in Dhaka City using a structured
questionnaire. One major finding of the study
was that the bank lacked a uniform policy for
performance appraisal and that the appraisal
process was not confidential, allowing all
employees to see the ratings and feedback
related to performance evaluation. The study
also suggested that when making performance
measurement decisions, both qualitative and
quantitative components should be considered,
and those responsible for decision-making
should be honest, sincere, and serious in their
evaluations of subordinates. This highlights the
importance of a fair and confidential performance
appraisal system in ensuring the effective
functioning of an organization.
Aktar, S. S. [16] investigated the relationship
between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and
employee performance in commercial banks in
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
12
Bangladesh. Using a structured questionnaire,
data were collected from 180 employees
selected from 12 commercial banks (2
government-owned and 10 non-government-
owned, including 4 Islamic banks and 6 non-
Islamic banks). The data were analyzed using
descriptive statistics, and the results showed a
favorable link between intrinsic and extrinsic
incentives and employee performance.
Nonetheless, to boost staff engagement and
motivation, the authors advised banks to use
both kinds of awards. These results suggest that
incorporating a comprehensive rewards system
can significantly impact employee performance
and ultimately benefit the organization.
Daoanis, L. E. [17] conducted a study to examine
the relationship between a well-structured
performance appraisal system and employee
performance. The study's conclusions showed a
substantial positive association between an
effective system for performance reviews and
employee output. It was noted that without
ensuring an effective appraisal system and
offering appropriate rewards, organizations might
struggle to maximize the potential of their
talented employees. The study specifically
looked at the performance appraisal system of
the Nass Construction Company and collected
data through interviews, focus group discussions,
and survey questionnaires. Based on the results,
the authors recommended that organizations
should review and revise their appraisal system
yearly to promote employee engagement and
involvement.
Hafiza, N. S. [18] found extrinsic rewards and
employee motivation are strongly correlated, but
intrinsic rewards have a less profound effect on
motivation. Based on these findings, employers
should concentrate on offering a range of fringe
benefits to workers to improve their ability to do
their jobs. Bonuses, incentives, and other types
of extrinsic rewards may be included in this; they
can raise employee motivation levels and, as a
result, increase corporate productivity.
Organizations must put a high priority on
employee wellness and build an atmosphere that
encourages motivation and job satisfaction.
Rubel, M. R. [19] conducted research with a
focus on the mediating effects of organizational
commitment to examine how the fairness of
performance reviews and promotion possibilities
impacts nurses' desire to leave their jobs.
According to the study, nurses' level of
organizational commitment and desire to leave
had a substantial negative impact on how fair
they assessed performance reviews and
promotion possibilities to be.
Hossain, M. A. [20] studies have shown that
assigning a single individual to evaluate
employee performance can result in biased
evaluations, as the evaluator may take into
account their prior relationship with the employee
during the evaluation process. To avoid such
biases, organizations should implement various
programs to educate raters and reduce rating
scale errors. This would ultimately lead to
evaluations that are more accurate and
encourage raters to provide constructive
feedback on employee performance.
Huda, K. N. [21] found that the introduction of
Employee Performance Management Systems
(EPMS) can significantly enhance the
performance culture of banks. By implementing
EPMS, employees become more engaged in
their responsibilities, leading to a more favorable
working environment for all. This highlights the
importance of EPMS in promoting a positive and
productive workplace culture in banks, which
ultimately helps to retain and motivate talented
employees.
Gulzar, S. A. [22] examined the impact of
employee performance appraisal on retention.
The study found a notable positive correlation
between employee performance appraisal and
retention, indicating that regular and accurate
appraisal systems are crucial for making fair
decisions about employee performance.
Therefore, it is recommended that organizations
adopt proper appraisal systems and implement
them consistently to ensure fair and appropriate
retention decisions.
Ramlall, S. [23] investigated the relationship
between vrious motivational theories and the
employees retention. according to the findings
organizations needs to ensure proper working
environment, fairness and equity and also
employee development platform to retain the
competent employees.
Salman, A. A. [24] performed a study to better
understand how employee retention affects bank
performance, this study will look at the elements
that affect it in Karachi, Pakistan's banking
industry. Purposive sampling was used to gather
data, which was then analyzed using SPSS
employing closed-ended questions with a Likert
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
13
scale of 1 to 5 as a scoring system. The study
discovered no correlation between employee
training and development and retention, but a
substantial correlation between employee
motivation and retention. The study suggests that
banks change their policies to enhance
workforce development and training, which will
aid in employee retention for longer periods of
time.
2. METHODOLOGY
This research utilized a descriptive research
design as it is best suited for describing the
effects of the relationship between performance
appraisal and employee motivation and retention.
The study employed a combination of qualitative
and quantitative data collection methods, with
continuous scales (ranging from strongly agree
to strongly disagree) and multiple-choice and
interview questions being used to measure the
items on the instrument. The 5-point Likert scale
was utilized in the study, with values of 1 to 5
representing Strongly Disagree, Disagree,
Neutral, Agree, and Strongly Agree, respectively.
The sampling method used in the research was
random, and the target population was
employees of various private banks. The survey
consisted of 22 questions, including demographic
information and 110 respondents participated.
The study used both qualitative and quantitative
methodologies to address the research questions
and objectives. To calculate the bivariate
correlation between variables on a scale of -1 to
+1, the research used the Pearson correlation
coefficient, also known as Pearson's r. The
values of -1 and +1 represent total negative and
total positive linear correlation, respectively,
while 0 indicates no linear correlation.
2.1 Hypotheses
H1: Proper performance appraisal system has a
significant role in employee motivation and
retention in the private banking industry of
Bangladesh
H2: Compensation and rewards have a
significant role in employee motivation and
retention in the private banking industry of
Bangladesh
H3: Proper feedback on employee evaluation
has a significant role in employee motivation
and retention in the private banking industry
of Bangladesh
2.2 Conceptual Framework
A structured self-administered questionnaire
instrument is used in this research for data
collection. Here, the independent variable is the
performance appraisal system, compensation,
reward, and feedback, and the dependent
variable is employee motivation and retention.
Through the questionnaire, an attempt is made to
uncover the connection between the
performance assessment system, compensation
and reward, feedback, and employee motivation
and retention.
From the relation, the result as in the impact of
performance appraisal System, compensation
and reward, feedback in employee motivation
and retention will be found.
Fig. 1. Conceptual framework
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
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2.3 Data Analysis
The following analysis provides an overview of
the relationship between the single dependent
variable with the set of independent variables.
Pearson's Correlation analysis and regression
analysis were performed to see whether there
was a link between the independent and
dependent variables. Statistical software was
assigned to carry perform each of these
operations. The name of this software is
Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS),
version 25.0.
2.3.1 Demographic characteristics of
respondents
110 employees from private commercial banks in
Bangladesh participated in the questionnaire
survey. The demographic features of the
employees who participated as respondents in
this sample are listed in figure:
Appendix Fig. 1
(a)
represents that out of 110
employees, 75 are male and 33 are female.
Although the banks provide equal employment to
both males and females these figures, suggest a
lower level of female involvement.
Appendix Fig. 2
(b)
represents that out of 110
employees, the experience data shows that 30%
or 33 employees have experienced between 5-
10 years and 28.2% or 31 have experienced
between 2-5 years. Without these 26.4% or 29
have experienced between 1-2 years and the
remains or 17 persons have experienced
between 10-20 years. So, most of the employees
who participate in the research have experienced
between 5-10 years.
2.3.2 Appraisal methods
Appendix Fig. 3
(c)
represents that most of the
responses lie in modern methods, which the
banks used to appraise their employee's
performance.
60% or 66 employees out of 110, state that their
bank uses modern methods of performance
appraisal, and the remaining 44, or 40% of
employees state their bank used traditional
methods of performance appraisal.
Appendix Fig. 4
(d)
represents that of employees
who choose traditional methods here 60% said
their banks use the checklist method and most of
the employees state that their bank uses a
ranking method for performance appraisal.
Appendix Fig. 5
(e)
represents that 360-degree
performance appraisal and management by
objectives are the very popular appraisal method.
As we see out of 76 responses, 43 choose 360-
degree performance appraisal that their bank use
and 28.9% or 22 employees state that their bank
uses management by objectives methods to
appraise their employees. Without these two
approaches, many banks use assessment
centers, and behaviorally anchored rating scales
are being used by the banks for performance
appraisal.
Many employees choose both traditional and
modern methods that have been used by their
banks for performance appraisal. According to
their view, their bank used both the ranking
method and 360-degree performance appraisal
method for employee performance appraisal.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Results of Descriptive Analysis
The rating of Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree
was provided in this order from 1 to 5. As a
result, the average response to statements is
shown by the Mean of each statement. The
majority of responders agreed with the views
expressed. However, a few strongly disagreed as
well.
Based on the sample responses, it can be
observed that the mean score for the
assessment of performance in banks falls
between 3.71 to 4.15, with a standard deviation
value of 0.752 to 1.049. This suggests that a
majority of the respondents share similar views
on this topic, indicating agreement regarding
their banks' performance assessment. However,
the deviation value also indicates the presence
of some variations in responses, implying that
there may be some issues or concerns
regarding this context that need to be
addressed.
Here N indicates the sample size and the mean
scores were calculated by equally weighing all of
the items' scores. On a five-point scale, the
mean score for Employee Motivation and
Retention is found to be 4.00 (SD=0.63). It
implies that the bank's employee motivation and
retention are good.
On a five-point scale, the mean score for the
performance appraisal system is 3.91 (SD=0.51).
It indicates that the banks use a proper
performance appraisal system and processes.
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
15
The mean score for compensation and rewards
is found to be 3.86 (SD=0.68) which means
banks are performing good compensation and
reward practices. The mean score for feedback
is found to be 3.95 (SD=0.77) which indicates
that the bank's feedback policy is average.
The standard deviation of one is very high and
lower than one means there is less
deviation. Since the Standard Deviation for
each variable is below one, we can conclude
that the deviation is less in the result.
Table 1. Descriptive statistics
N Minimum Maximum Sum Mean Std. Deviation
Is your organization using a
formal performance appraisal
system?
110 1 5 534 4.85 .752
The bank performance appraisal
system is reliable
110 2 5 397 3.61 .836
An appraisal is done regularly
(yearly, half-yearly, quarterly,
monthly)
110 1 5 408 3.71 .860
I think the Appraisal system of my
organization is fair and ethical
110 2 5 422 3.84 .873
I have a positive attitude toward
the Performance Appraisal
process
110 1 5 416 3.78 1.008
The Appraisal system of my
organization helps me to adapt to
new situations
110 1 5 421 3.83 1.003
To evaluate all activities in
comparable grades and levels,
the performance appraisal system
uses a consistent structure and
method.
110 1 5 415 3.77 .895
Performance Appraisal supports
proper compensation packages
for employees
110 1 5 414 3.76 1.049
In the performance appraisal
form, job-related contents which
are very clear and standardized
are fairly included, and proper
reward is given based on the
evaluation
110 2 5 424 3.85 .897
Promotion and other benefits are
dependent on the performance of
the individual employee
110 1 5 432 3.93 1.020
The organization provides you
with career development facilities
and empowerment to stay in the
organization
110 1 5 429 3.90 .908
I am satisfied with the
performance assessment
system's feedback component
110 1 5 432 3.93 .906
I receive specific and accurate
feedback on my past performance
110 2 5 439 3.99 .873
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
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N Minimum Maximum Sum Mean Std. Deviation
The Appraisal process has an
impact on employee performance
110 2 5 441 4.01 .883
Performance appraisal brings job
satisfaction in your job through
improving job performance
110 2 5 440 4.00 .919
An effective appraisal system
keeps the employees motivated
110 2 5 445 4.05 .817
The current appraisal system
motivates you to learn new things
and encourages you to stay in the
organization
110 2 5 438 3.98 .888
Valid N (list-wise) 110
Table 2. Descriptive statistics of variables
Mean Std. Deviation N
Employee Motivation And Retention 4.0091 .62619 110
Performance Appraisal system 3.9130 .51201 110
Compensation And Reward 3.8614 .68200 110
Feedback 3.9591 .76964 110
3.2 Results of Correlations Analysis
A statistical method for assessing how closely
two variables are connected is correlation
analysis. The correlation coefficient, which has a
value between -1.0 and 1.0, shows how strongly
and in which direction the variables are related. A
perfect correlation has a value of -1.0 for a
negative correlation and a value of 1.0 for a
positive correlation. This indicates that when
there is a positive correlation, the variables move
in the same direction, and when there is a
negative correlation, they move in opposing
directions. The correlation coefficient cannot fall
below -1.0 or rise beyond 1. In essence, the
correlation coefficient helps researchers better
comprehend the dynamics between two
variables by offering insightful information on the
degree of a link between them.
Correlation analysis for all the variables is shown
in Table 3. It examines the correlation among
Performance appraisal Systems, compensation
and reward, feedback, employee motivation, and
retention. All of the independent variables
“performance appraisal System, compensation
and reward, feedback” are found significantly and
positively correlated with the dependent variables
“employee motivation and retention”. The results
of the correlation analysis showed that there is a
moderate relationship between the independent
variables (performance appraisal system,
compensation, and reward, feedback) and the
dependent variables (employee motivation and
retention). Specifically, a positive correlation was
found between the performance appraisal
system and employee motivation and retention,
with an R-value of 0.603 and a p-value less than
0.05. Similarly, a positive correlation was
observed between compensation and reward
and employee motivation and retention, with an
R-value of 0.578 and a p-value less than 0.05.
Lastly, a positive correlation was found between
feedback and employee motivation and retention,
with an R-value of 0.515 and a p-value less than
0.05. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is
a moderate relationship between the
independent variables and dependent variables,
highlighting the importance of implementing an
effective performance appraisal system,
providing adequate compensation and rewards,
and providing regular feedback to ensure
employee motivation and retention in the
organization.
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
17
Table 3. Correlation analysis of variables
Performance
appraisal
system
Compensation
and reward
Feedback Employee
motivation
and
retention
Performance
Appraisal System
Pearson
Correlation
1 .723
**
.575
**
.603
**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000
N 110 110 110 110
Compensation And
Reward
Pearson
Correlation
.723
**
1 .564
**
.578
**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000
N 110 110 110 110
Feedback Pearson
Correlation
.575
**
.564
**
1 .515
**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000
N 110 110 110 110
Employee
Motivation And
Retention
Pearson
Correlation
.603
**
.578
**
.515
**
1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000
N 110 110 110 110
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
3.3 Results of the Hypothesis Testing
Hypothesis 1: A proper performance appraisal
system has a significant role in employee
motivation and retention.
The null hypothesis is “Proper performance
appraisal system does not have a significant role
in employee motivation and retention”.
The alternative hypothesis is “A Proper
performance appraisal system has a significant
role in employee motivation and retention”.
After conducting a one-way ANOVA analysis, the
results in Table 5 showed that the F-value was
7.747, and the corresponding p-value was 0.000.
Since the p-value is less than the commonly
accepted significance level of 0.05, the null
hypothesis can be rejected, indicating that a
proper performance appraisal system plays a
significant role in employee motivation and
retention. Therefore, it can be concluded that
having an effective performance appraisal
system in place is critical for ensuring that
employees are motivated and retained in the
organization.
Hypothesis 2: A proper performance appraisal
system does not have a significant role in
employee motivation and retention in the private
banking industry of Bangladesh
The null hypothesis is “Compensation and
rewards do not have a significant role in
employee motivation and retention”.
The alternative hypothesis is “Compensation and
rewards have a significant role in employee
motivation and retention”.
In Table 6 after using one-way ANOVA, F = 5.12,
p-value=0.00. The p-value has been found less
than 0.05. That means the null hypothesis may
be rejected at a 5% level of significance.
Therefore, it can be concluded that
Compensation and Reward have a significant
role in employee motivation and retention.
Hypothesis 3: Compensation and rewards have
a significant role in employee motivation and
retention.
The null hypothesis is “Proper feedback on
employee evaluation does not have a significant
role in employee motivation and retention”
The alternative hypothesis is “Proper feedback
on employee evaluation has a significant role in
employee motivation and retention”
Based on the results of the one-way ANOVA
presented in Table 7, it was found that the F-
value was 5.27, with a corresponding p-value of
0.000. Since the p-value is less than the
commonly accepted significance level of 0.05,
the null hypothesis can be rejected, indicating
that Proper feedback on employee evaluation
has a significant role in employee motivation and
retention. Therefore, it can be concluded that
providing appropriate feedback on employee
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
18
evaluations is crucial in maintaining employee
motivation and retention in the organization.
3.4 Results of Regression Analysis
Regression analysis is a powerful statistical tool
used to explore the relationship between two or
more variables of interest. This approach
involves analyzing how one or more independent
variables affect a dependent variable. Although
there are various types of regression analysis,
the fundamental objective remains the same: to
investigate the nature and strength of the
association between the variables under
consideration. In essence, regression analysis
helps researchers to better understand the
dynamics between different factors and how they
contribute to the overall outcome of interest.
Based on the analysis of a regression model with
three independent variables (Performance
appraisal System, Compensation and Reward,
Feedback) and a dependent variable (Employee
Motivation and Retention), the results show a
positive correlation (R = 0.656 or 65.6%)
between the dependent variable and the
independent variables. The coefficient of
determination (R Square = 0.431) indicates that
the independent variables explain 43.1% of the
variation in the dependent variable. The
Standard error of the Estimate was found to be
0.479.
To determine whether the variables had a
regression connection, an ANOVA table was
generated. The F-ratio was used to determine
the overall goodness of fit of the regression
model to the data. The results suggest that the
regression model is statistically significant and
appropriate for the data under investigation.
The ANOVA statistics shown in Table 9 indicated
that the processed data had a significant level of
0.000, suggesting that the model is effective in
predicting the relationship between the
independent and dependent variables. This
means that the study has produced statistically
significant findings, as the p-value (Sig=.000) is
less than .05, indicating that the results are both
significant and valid. Therefore, the study has
provided reliable evidence of the relationship
between the independent and dependent
variables, which can be used to inform decision-
making and improve employee motivation and
retention in the private banking industries in
Bangladesh.
Here conduction of regression analysis is to
determine the impact of the independent
variables, namely the performance appraisal
system, compensation and reward, and
feedback, on employee motivation and retention.
The analysis showed that employee motivation
and retention would have a coefficient of 1.008 if
the independent variables were kept constant.
The results further revealed that the performance
appraisal system has a significant positive
relationship with employee motivation and
retention, with a regression coefficient of 0.391
and a significant value of 0.05, indicating that a
unit increase in the performance appraisal
system leads to a 0.391 increase in employee
motivation and retention.
Similarly, the regression analysis showed that
compensation and reward also have a
positive impact on employee motivation and
retention, with a regression coefficient of 0.215
and a significant value of 0.035. Thus, a unit
increase in compensation and reward leads to a
0.215 increase in employee motivation and
retention.
Table 4. Results of hypothesis testing
Hypothesis Findings
1. A proper performance appraisal system has a significant role in employee
motivation and retention
Accepted
2. Compensation and rewards have a significant role in employee motivation and
retention
Accepted
3. Proper feedback on employee evaluation has a significant role in employee
motivation and retention
Accepted
Table 5. The one-way analysis of variance in the performance appraisal system
Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
Between Groups 13.984 12 1.165 7.747 .000
Within Groups 14.591 97 .150
Total 28.575 109
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
19
Table 6. The one-way analysis of variance in compensation and reward
Sum of squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 19.661 12 1.638 5.120 .000
Within Groups 31.038 97 .320
Total 50.698 109
Table 7. The One-way analysis of variance on Feedback
Sum of squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 25.483 12 2.124 5.271 .000
Within Groups 39.083 97 .403
Total 64.566 109
Table 8. Model summary of variables
Model R R square Adjusted
R square
Std. an
error in
the
estimate
Change statistics
R
square
change
F change df1 df2 Sig. F
change
.656
a
.431 .415 .47915 .431 26.722 3 106 .000
a. Predictors: (Constant), Feedback, Compensation, Reward, Performance Appraisal
Table 9. ANOVA
Model Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
Regression 18.405 3 6.135 26.722 .000
b
Residual 24.336 106 .230
Total 42.741 109
a. Dependent Variable: Employee Motivation And Retention
b. Predictors: (Constant), Feedback, Compensation, And Reward, Performance Appraisal System
Table 10. Coefficients of variables
Model Unstandardized
coefficients
Standardized
coefficients
T Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) 1.008 .356 2.830 .006
Performance Appraisal System .391 .136 .320 2.879 .005
Compensation And Reward .215 .101 .234 2.130 .035
Feedback .162 .075 .199 2.146 .034
a. Dependent Variable: Employee Motivation And Retention
Moreover, we found that feedback in the
performance appraisal process positively affects
employee motivation and retention, with a
regression coefficient of 0.162 and a significant
value of 0.034. Hence, given a unit increase in
feedback in the performance appraisal process,
employee motivation and retention would
increase by 0.162 times. In conclusion, the
regression analysis supported the positive impact
of the independent variables, performance
appraisal system, compensation and reward, and
feedback, on employee motivation and retention.
The study recommends that organizations should
focus on implementing an effective performance
appraisal system that incorporates compensation
and reward and feedback to increase employee
motivation and retention.
4. CONCLUSIONS
Proper performance appraisal is a crucial factor
in achieving productive employees, competitive
advantage, and sustainable growth in the
marketplace. Without an efficient performance
appraisal system, compensation and reward
schemes, and a well-structured feedback policy,
businesses cannot expect to receive the best
output from their employees. These three
elements are positively correlated with employee
motivation and retention, which is now
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
20
recognized as an organization's most valuable
resource for competitiveness in the business
sector. Recruitment and retention of the
appropriate talent remain a significant challenge
for organizations, and an effective performance
assessment system is one of the tools that
businesses may use to retain their human
assets. This study aimed to examine the impact
of proper performance appraisal on employee
motivation and retention in the private banking
industry of Bangladesh. The study analyzed the
relationship between the performance appraisal
system, compensation and rewards, and
feedback to motivate and retain employees. The
focus of this research was to investigate whether
a well-structured performance appraisal system
can lead to increased employee motivation and
retention in the private banking industries of
Bangladesh. The results from this study revealed
that a positive correlation exists between the
performance appraisal system, compensation,
rewards, and feedback policies, and increased
employee motivation and retention. The findings
of the correlation analysis showed a significant
positive relationship between these factors. In
conclusion, the implementation of an efficient
performance appraisal system that includes
compensation and rewards, as well as feedback,
is essential for employee motivation and
retention in the private banking industry of
Bangladesh. Banks must recognize the
significance of their human assets and
implement effective performance assessment
systems to retain them. By doing so, banks can
achieve productive employees, competitive
advantage, and sustainable growth in the
marketplace
5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
The study at hand primarily focuses on the
impact of effectiveness performance appraisal on
employee motivation and retention in private
commercial banks in Bangladesh. However,
future research could be in public commercial
banks. Further research into these practices
might be done by conducting comparisons
between public and private commercial banks in
Bangladesh. Without this future research may be
based on effectively managing a performance
appraisal system which may also include
additional areas or nations with comparable
situations to get over the study's geographical
limitations. Overall, there is a variety of ways that
additional research might expand on the results
of this investigation.
6. MANAGERIAL AND POLICY IMPLICA-
TIONS
As the study on the impact of effectiveness
performance appraisal systems on employee
motivation and retention in the private banking
industry of Bangladesh has several managerial
and policy implications, including:
Effective performance assessment systems are a
tool that managers in Bangladesh's private
banking sector may utilize to increase employee
engagement and retention. Managers may
provide employees with a clear picture of their
performance goals and reward them for
surpassing or meeting them by conducting
honest and efficient performance appraisals.
Effective performance assessment systems may
be implemented with the help of policies relating
to compensation and rewards. Government
agencies or business associations might
establish policies or rules requiring private
financial institutions to carry out frequent, fair
performance reviews and to offer rewards to
those institutions that commit to good
performance management. To support the
effectiveness of appraisal systems, managers
and employees can receive appropriate feedback
on the system. Overall, the results of this study
point to the possibility that the private banking
industry in Bangladesh might greatly benefit from
using efficient performance assessment systems
to raise employee motivation and retention.
However, careful planning, strong support, a
dedication to continuing review, and
improvement are necessary for the effective
deployment of these systems.
COMPETING INTERESTS
Authors have declared that no competing
interests exist.
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21
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Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
22
APPENDIX
a- Gender
Fig. 1. Gender of the Respondents
b- Experience
Fig. 2. Experience of the Respondents
c- Appraisal Methods
Fig. 3. Appraisal Methods
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322
23
d- Traditional Appraisal Methods
Fig. 4. Traditional Appraisal Methods
e- Modern Appraisal Methods
Fig. 5. Modern Appraisal Methods
________________________________________________________________________________
? 2023 Hossain and Islam; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any
medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Peer-review history:
The peer review history for this paper can be accessed here:
https://www.sdiarticle5.com/review-history/99322
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410

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  • 1. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ++ Lecturer; # Professor; *Corresponding author: E-mail: rf.farhad73@gmail.com; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023 Journal of Economics, Management and Trade Volume 29, Issue 8, Page 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 ISSN: 2456-9216 (Past name: British Journal of Economics, Management & Trade, Past ISSN: 2278-098X) Impact of Effective Performance Appraisal Systems on Employee Motivation and Retention in Private Banking Industry of Bangladesh Md. Farhad Hossain a++* and Nazrul Islam b# a Faculty of Business Administration, EXIM Bank Agricultural University Bangladesh, Bangladesh. b Faculty of Business, Northern University Bangladesh, Bangladesh. Authors’ contributions This work was carried out in collaboration between both authors. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Article Information DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2023/v29i81111 Open Peer Review History: This journal follows the Advanced Open Peer Review policy. Identity of the Reviewers, Editor(s) and additional Reviewers, peer review comments, different versions of the manuscript, comments of the editors, etc are available here: https://www.sdiarticle5.com/review-history/99322 Received: 01/04/2023 Accepted: 09/05/2023 Published: 24/05/2023 ABSTRACT Aims: Healthy economic development requires properly managing the banking industry of any country. Along with state-owned banks, private banks play a critical role in the country's economy. Managers in all types of banks now confront the same challenge: how to get the utmost output from their employees. Therefore, Performance appraisal appears to be inevitable since it set the standard for comparing actual performance to established objectives and recommending practical solutions that help the organization achieve sustainable growth. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to determine the effect of performance appraisal on employee motivation and retention. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the private banking industry of Bangladesh between November 01, 2022, to March 30, 2023. The study duration was determined Original Research Article Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 2. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 9 based on the scope of the research project and the availability of time and resources to complete it within the designated timeframe. Methodology: A random sampling method was used to conduct the study through a structured questionnaire among 110 employees from various private banks. Questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data, which was then analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 25.0 software. Results: Major findings of the study indicate that performance appraisal is critical for employee motivation and employees perceived performance appraisal as a fair procedure, which increased their motivation and retention. Compensation and reward, and feedback are also perceived positively by the employees, which motivate them to stay in the banks. Conclusion: There is a recommendation that banks should review the appraisal process regularly, improve the feedback policy, introduce an effective reward system, provide the opportunity to employees for career development and empowerment, and maintain a participative environment. Keywords: Economic development; performance appraisal; sustainable growth; compensation and reward; feedback policy; career development; empowerment. 1. INTRODUCTION The beginning of the 21st century saw a rapid business change to attract and retain talent. Globalization, technology abuse, and increased competitiveness are all contributing factors. Performance appraisal is one of the most important aspects in motivating workers to put forth their maximum efforts in generating creative ideas that contribute to a stronger company functioning and improved financial and non- financial effectiveness [1]. Identifying, measuring, and monitoring the output of people in firms is what performance evaluation comprises. Employees can be motivated and their performance can be improved by using performance assessments [2]. By highlighting, where an employee's capabilities are and noting issues that still need work, an assessor may assist concentrate an employee's attention on a track that will create the most beneficial results. Reinforcing actions that have resulted in strong good outcomes should also encourage the individual to keep performing in this manner [3]. Managers in all types of banks encounter the same challenge: how to take full advantage of their workforce. As a result, performance appraisal appears to be inescapable. People will naturally, informally, and indiscriminately defend the job performance of others, even subordinates, without the presence of a properly planned procedure of appraisal. Without a systematic assessment system, the human tendency to judge can result in severe motivating, moral, and regulatory problems in the workplace. Without a systematic assessment system, there is no way to ensure that the decisions made are legitimate, equitable, rational, and reliable. In light of this, the focus of this research is to find out how performance appraisal affects employee motivation and retention in the private banking industry of Bangladesh. 1.1 Literature Review Anjum, N. &. [4] investigates the prevailing performance appraisal system and promotion policy of selected public commercial in Bangladesh. Through interviews with six experienced professional employees from different banks, the study revealed that these banks mainly rely on the ACR method for performance evaluation and promotion, except for Agrani Bank which recently implemented the PER method - an automated system and software for evaluating employee performance. However, the absence of formal feedback procedures in public banks hinders employees from recognizing their performance gaps and areas for growth. The study also found that performance evaluations often depend on senior personnel, particularly the manager's perception of their employees, favoring those with good relationships with their managers. The authors recommended that public commercial banks should be more mindful of their entire process of assessing employee performance to remain competitive and secure in the market. They suggested that banks should focus on feedback policies for performance appraisals and yearly reviews to monitor the real quality of performance increase expected from employees. Islam, M. A. [5] found In the commercial banking sector of Bangladesh's Rajshahi division, research was done to determine the impact of Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 3. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 10 Management by Objectives (MBO) on staff satisfaction and performance evaluation. A sample of 60 workers from 33 commercial banks participated in the study and was asked to respond to a self-administered questionnaire. The study's findings showed a strong correlation between employee satisfaction and performance evaluations (r=0.715). This shows that when performance reviews are done well, they may increase employee happiness, which raises productivity and effectiveness throughout the company. The study also found that proper reward mechanisms play a crucial role in enhancing employee satisfaction levels. Although most commercial banks applied the MBO approach, the study highlighted that achieving desired goals could sometimes be challenging. Therefore, it is essential for management or higher authorities to properly utilize the MBO method, as clear communication of objectives and a positive attitude towards achieving goals among employees are critical factors for the success of the MBO approach. Overall, the study provides valuable insights into the importance of MBO in managing employee performance and highlights the need for effective communication, reward mechanisms, and proper implementation of the MBO approach to increase employee satisfaction and organizational effectiveness. Al-Jedaia, Y. &. [6] discovered that employee motivation and job performance share a positive correlation, with the purpose and evaluation of performance appraisals playing a significant role in motivating employees to perform better. Interestingly, the study indicated that neither leadership style nor performance rating standards had any effect on employee motivation or performance. The study used a survey-based descriptive research approach to gather 294 answers to investigate the effect of performance assessment on job performance in Qatar's government sector. Setiawati, T. &. [7] Conducted a study to explore how performance appraisal fairness and job satisfaction can impact job performance through employee commitment. 187 employees participated in the study and provided their responses to questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed using a t-test, F-test, multiple linear regression, and path analysis. The findings of the study revealed that performance appraisal fairness and job satisfaction positively and significantly influence employee commitment, both partially and simultaneously. Based on their results, the authors suggest that organizations should ensure that their performance appraisal system is fair and just when assessing employee output, as this can lead to increased employee retention and morale. Ugoani, J. [8] undertook a study to delve into the link between employee productivity and performance appraisal. Through exploratory research design, data was gathered from 109 participants and analyzed, leading to a significant finding of a strong positive correlation (R = 0.790) between performance appraisal and employee productivity. The study emphasizes the importance of providing regular feedback to employees and suggests that organizations should assess their strengths and weaknesses before assigning any new responsibilities. Ugoani's study sheds light on the crucial role of performance appraisal in driving employee productivity and offers valuable recommendations for organizations seeking to optimize their management practices. Upadhyay, R. K. [9] demonstrated a positive and significant correlation between performance appraisal and team effectiveness in the service sector. The findings also revealed that employee relations partially mediate this relationship, and employee satisfaction moderates the association between performance appraisal and employee relations. The authors recommend that organizations implement a well-designed appraisal system to improve productivity and remain competitive. Failure to do so may lead to a decline in employee satisfaction and a failure to achieve organizational objectives. Ahmad, A. D. [10] conducted a study to look at how employee work satisfaction is affected by assessment and incentive systems. 250 participants completed a standardized questionnaire that the researchers then used statistical methods including regression analysis, correlation analysis, descriptive analysis, and t- tests to examine. The results revealed a contrast between the reward system and employee work satisfaction, which had a positive link. The authors also discovered that employee performance was positively impacted by both the incentive and assessment systems. In light of these findings, the authors suggested that top- level management, in the absence of a reward and appraisal system, take into account additional factors, such as manager attitudes, the working environment, and coworker behavior, to ensure the best possible employee output and achieve sustainability. Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 4. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 11 Aleem, M. &. [11] researched how performance reviews relate to staff retention and organizational engagement in Pakistan's banking industry. The researcher gathered information from 24 managers who were employed by eight of Pakistan's largest banks. For the analysis, themes, and nodes were used for the qualitative portion, and the correlation matrix and regression were used for the quantitative portion. According to the findings, performance evaluation significantly affects employee retention and organizational commitment. This research underlines the need of having a sound performance assessment system to boost employee engagement and retention in Pakistan's banking industry. As a recommendation, the authors suggested that banks should periodically review their quota system to ensure an acceptable performance appraisal system and focus on feedback policies to improve employee commitment and retention. Vashistha, N. &. [12] analyzed data collected from 150 employees from several public and private sector banks which allowed researchers to examine the relationship between performance evaluation and employee motivation. The purpose of the study was to examine how motivation levels among bank employees were impacted by performance evaluations. The study discovered a strong and positive correlation between employee motivation and performance assessment. These results highlight how important efficient performance assessment systems are for raising employee motivation levels in the banking sector. So, to increase employee engagement and accomplish organizational objectives, businesses should give top priority to designing and implementing an efficient performance assessment system. The authors suggest that organizations can enhance their employees' motivation by ensuring a proper appraisal system and feedback mechanism. The authors recommend that the more an organization invests in establishing an effective appraisal system and feedback loop, the greater the potential to motivate their employees. Nawaz, M. S. [13] conducted a study to explore the impact of the fairness of performance appraisal and career growth on turnover intention. The study collected data from 150 employees from diverse organizations and utilized the structural equation modeling (SEM) path analysis technique for analysis. The results of the study indicated that to retain talented employees, organizations need to have a proper appraisal system in place and offer ample opportunities for career development. The study also found that a good promotional strategy can help organizations achieve optimal performance from their employees. Based on their findings, the authors recommend that organizations should prioritize developing a fair and effective appraisal system, offering opportunities for career growth, and implementing a solid promotional strategy to enhance employee retention and performance. Kabir, M. A. [14] conducted an empirical survey to gather the opinions of private commercial bank executives in Bangladesh about various areas of performance evaluation schemes. They collected data from three prominent banks through a structured questionnaire, which included an interview and Likert's 5-point scale questions. The study revealed that all three banks prioritize developing their employees' knowledge of institutional values and interpersonal skills such as proactive leadership, initiative, drive, and judgment in decision-making for effective customer problem-solving. However, the study also found that these banks paid less attention to organizational and customer behavioral aspects such as employee participation, building professionalism, training and development, and communication. The authors recommend that banks should increase their focus on employee morale related to performance assessment schemes and create a positive working environment for learning. Rahim, S. A. [15] conducted a study to assess the performance appraisal system of Mercantile Bank Limited by surveying 80 employees from its 20 branches in Dhaka City using a structured questionnaire. One major finding of the study was that the bank lacked a uniform policy for performance appraisal and that the appraisal process was not confidential, allowing all employees to see the ratings and feedback related to performance evaluation. The study also suggested that when making performance measurement decisions, both qualitative and quantitative components should be considered, and those responsible for decision-making should be honest, sincere, and serious in their evaluations of subordinates. This highlights the importance of a fair and confidential performance appraisal system in ensuring the effective functioning of an organization. Aktar, S. S. [16] investigated the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and employee performance in commercial banks in Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 5. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 12 Bangladesh. Using a structured questionnaire, data were collected from 180 employees selected from 12 commercial banks (2 government-owned and 10 non-government- owned, including 4 Islamic banks and 6 non- Islamic banks). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and the results showed a favorable link between intrinsic and extrinsic incentives and employee performance. Nonetheless, to boost staff engagement and motivation, the authors advised banks to use both kinds of awards. These results suggest that incorporating a comprehensive rewards system can significantly impact employee performance and ultimately benefit the organization. Daoanis, L. E. [17] conducted a study to examine the relationship between a well-structured performance appraisal system and employee performance. The study's conclusions showed a substantial positive association between an effective system for performance reviews and employee output. It was noted that without ensuring an effective appraisal system and offering appropriate rewards, organizations might struggle to maximize the potential of their talented employees. The study specifically looked at the performance appraisal system of the Nass Construction Company and collected data through interviews, focus group discussions, and survey questionnaires. Based on the results, the authors recommended that organizations should review and revise their appraisal system yearly to promote employee engagement and involvement. Hafiza, N. S. [18] found extrinsic rewards and employee motivation are strongly correlated, but intrinsic rewards have a less profound effect on motivation. Based on these findings, employers should concentrate on offering a range of fringe benefits to workers to improve their ability to do their jobs. Bonuses, incentives, and other types of extrinsic rewards may be included in this; they can raise employee motivation levels and, as a result, increase corporate productivity. Organizations must put a high priority on employee wellness and build an atmosphere that encourages motivation and job satisfaction. Rubel, M. R. [19] conducted research with a focus on the mediating effects of organizational commitment to examine how the fairness of performance reviews and promotion possibilities impacts nurses' desire to leave their jobs. According to the study, nurses' level of organizational commitment and desire to leave had a substantial negative impact on how fair they assessed performance reviews and promotion possibilities to be. Hossain, M. A. [20] studies have shown that assigning a single individual to evaluate employee performance can result in biased evaluations, as the evaluator may take into account their prior relationship with the employee during the evaluation process. To avoid such biases, organizations should implement various programs to educate raters and reduce rating scale errors. This would ultimately lead to evaluations that are more accurate and encourage raters to provide constructive feedback on employee performance. Huda, K. N. [21] found that the introduction of Employee Performance Management Systems (EPMS) can significantly enhance the performance culture of banks. By implementing EPMS, employees become more engaged in their responsibilities, leading to a more favorable working environment for all. This highlights the importance of EPMS in promoting a positive and productive workplace culture in banks, which ultimately helps to retain and motivate talented employees. Gulzar, S. A. [22] examined the impact of employee performance appraisal on retention. The study found a notable positive correlation between employee performance appraisal and retention, indicating that regular and accurate appraisal systems are crucial for making fair decisions about employee performance. Therefore, it is recommended that organizations adopt proper appraisal systems and implement them consistently to ensure fair and appropriate retention decisions. Ramlall, S. [23] investigated the relationship between vrious motivational theories and the employees retention. according to the findings organizations needs to ensure proper working environment, fairness and equity and also employee development platform to retain the competent employees. Salman, A. A. [24] performed a study to better understand how employee retention affects bank performance, this study will look at the elements that affect it in Karachi, Pakistan's banking industry. Purposive sampling was used to gather data, which was then analyzed using SPSS employing closed-ended questions with a Likert Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 6. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 13 scale of 1 to 5 as a scoring system. The study discovered no correlation between employee training and development and retention, but a substantial correlation between employee motivation and retention. The study suggests that banks change their policies to enhance workforce development and training, which will aid in employee retention for longer periods of time. 2. METHODOLOGY This research utilized a descriptive research design as it is best suited for describing the effects of the relationship between performance appraisal and employee motivation and retention. The study employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods, with continuous scales (ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree) and multiple-choice and interview questions being used to measure the items on the instrument. The 5-point Likert scale was utilized in the study, with values of 1 to 5 representing Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Neutral, Agree, and Strongly Agree, respectively. The sampling method used in the research was random, and the target population was employees of various private banks. The survey consisted of 22 questions, including demographic information and 110 respondents participated. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methodologies to address the research questions and objectives. To calculate the bivariate correlation between variables on a scale of -1 to +1, the research used the Pearson correlation coefficient, also known as Pearson's r. The values of -1 and +1 represent total negative and total positive linear correlation, respectively, while 0 indicates no linear correlation. 2.1 Hypotheses H1: Proper performance appraisal system has a significant role in employee motivation and retention in the private banking industry of Bangladesh H2: Compensation and rewards have a significant role in employee motivation and retention in the private banking industry of Bangladesh H3: Proper feedback on employee evaluation has a significant role in employee motivation and retention in the private banking industry of Bangladesh 2.2 Conceptual Framework A structured self-administered questionnaire instrument is used in this research for data collection. Here, the independent variable is the performance appraisal system, compensation, reward, and feedback, and the dependent variable is employee motivation and retention. Through the questionnaire, an attempt is made to uncover the connection between the performance assessment system, compensation and reward, feedback, and employee motivation and retention. From the relation, the result as in the impact of performance appraisal System, compensation and reward, feedback in employee motivation and retention will be found. Fig. 1. Conceptual framework Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 7. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 14 2.3 Data Analysis The following analysis provides an overview of the relationship between the single dependent variable with the set of independent variables. Pearson's Correlation analysis and regression analysis were performed to see whether there was a link between the independent and dependent variables. Statistical software was assigned to carry perform each of these operations. The name of this software is Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 25.0. 2.3.1 Demographic characteristics of respondents 110 employees from private commercial banks in Bangladesh participated in the questionnaire survey. The demographic features of the employees who participated as respondents in this sample are listed in figure: Appendix Fig. 1 (a) represents that out of 110 employees, 75 are male and 33 are female. Although the banks provide equal employment to both males and females these figures, suggest a lower level of female involvement. Appendix Fig. 2 (b) represents that out of 110 employees, the experience data shows that 30% or 33 employees have experienced between 5- 10 years and 28.2% or 31 have experienced between 2-5 years. Without these 26.4% or 29 have experienced between 1-2 years and the remains or 17 persons have experienced between 10-20 years. So, most of the employees who participate in the research have experienced between 5-10 years. 2.3.2 Appraisal methods Appendix Fig. 3 (c) represents that most of the responses lie in modern methods, which the banks used to appraise their employee's performance. 60% or 66 employees out of 110, state that their bank uses modern methods of performance appraisal, and the remaining 44, or 40% of employees state their bank used traditional methods of performance appraisal. Appendix Fig. 4 (d) represents that of employees who choose traditional methods here 60% said their banks use the checklist method and most of the employees state that their bank uses a ranking method for performance appraisal. Appendix Fig. 5 (e) represents that 360-degree performance appraisal and management by objectives are the very popular appraisal method. As we see out of 76 responses, 43 choose 360- degree performance appraisal that their bank use and 28.9% or 22 employees state that their bank uses management by objectives methods to appraise their employees. Without these two approaches, many banks use assessment centers, and behaviorally anchored rating scales are being used by the banks for performance appraisal. Many employees choose both traditional and modern methods that have been used by their banks for performance appraisal. According to their view, their bank used both the ranking method and 360-degree performance appraisal method for employee performance appraisal. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Results of Descriptive Analysis The rating of Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree was provided in this order from 1 to 5. As a result, the average response to statements is shown by the Mean of each statement. The majority of responders agreed with the views expressed. However, a few strongly disagreed as well. Based on the sample responses, it can be observed that the mean score for the assessment of performance in banks falls between 3.71 to 4.15, with a standard deviation value of 0.752 to 1.049. This suggests that a majority of the respondents share similar views on this topic, indicating agreement regarding their banks' performance assessment. However, the deviation value also indicates the presence of some variations in responses, implying that there may be some issues or concerns regarding this context that need to be addressed. Here N indicates the sample size and the mean scores were calculated by equally weighing all of the items' scores. On a five-point scale, the mean score for Employee Motivation and Retention is found to be 4.00 (SD=0.63). It implies that the bank's employee motivation and retention are good. On a five-point scale, the mean score for the performance appraisal system is 3.91 (SD=0.51). It indicates that the banks use a proper performance appraisal system and processes. Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 8. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 15 The mean score for compensation and rewards is found to be 3.86 (SD=0.68) which means banks are performing good compensation and reward practices. The mean score for feedback is found to be 3.95 (SD=0.77) which indicates that the bank's feedback policy is average. The standard deviation of one is very high and lower than one means there is less deviation. Since the Standard Deviation for each variable is below one, we can conclude that the deviation is less in the result. Table 1. Descriptive statistics N Minimum Maximum Sum Mean Std. Deviation Is your organization using a formal performance appraisal system? 110 1 5 534 4.85 .752 The bank performance appraisal system is reliable 110 2 5 397 3.61 .836 An appraisal is done regularly (yearly, half-yearly, quarterly, monthly) 110 1 5 408 3.71 .860 I think the Appraisal system of my organization is fair and ethical 110 2 5 422 3.84 .873 I have a positive attitude toward the Performance Appraisal process 110 1 5 416 3.78 1.008 The Appraisal system of my organization helps me to adapt to new situations 110 1 5 421 3.83 1.003 To evaluate all activities in comparable grades and levels, the performance appraisal system uses a consistent structure and method. 110 1 5 415 3.77 .895 Performance Appraisal supports proper compensation packages for employees 110 1 5 414 3.76 1.049 In the performance appraisal form, job-related contents which are very clear and standardized are fairly included, and proper reward is given based on the evaluation 110 2 5 424 3.85 .897 Promotion and other benefits are dependent on the performance of the individual employee 110 1 5 432 3.93 1.020 The organization provides you with career development facilities and empowerment to stay in the organization 110 1 5 429 3.90 .908 I am satisfied with the performance assessment system's feedback component 110 1 5 432 3.93 .906 I receive specific and accurate feedback on my past performance 110 2 5 439 3.99 .873 Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 9. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 16 N Minimum Maximum Sum Mean Std. Deviation The Appraisal process has an impact on employee performance 110 2 5 441 4.01 .883 Performance appraisal brings job satisfaction in your job through improving job performance 110 2 5 440 4.00 .919 An effective appraisal system keeps the employees motivated 110 2 5 445 4.05 .817 The current appraisal system motivates you to learn new things and encourages you to stay in the organization 110 2 5 438 3.98 .888 Valid N (list-wise) 110 Table 2. Descriptive statistics of variables Mean Std. Deviation N Employee Motivation And Retention 4.0091 .62619 110 Performance Appraisal system 3.9130 .51201 110 Compensation And Reward 3.8614 .68200 110 Feedback 3.9591 .76964 110 3.2 Results of Correlations Analysis A statistical method for assessing how closely two variables are connected is correlation analysis. The correlation coefficient, which has a value between -1.0 and 1.0, shows how strongly and in which direction the variables are related. A perfect correlation has a value of -1.0 for a negative correlation and a value of 1.0 for a positive correlation. This indicates that when there is a positive correlation, the variables move in the same direction, and when there is a negative correlation, they move in opposing directions. The correlation coefficient cannot fall below -1.0 or rise beyond 1. In essence, the correlation coefficient helps researchers better comprehend the dynamics between two variables by offering insightful information on the degree of a link between them. Correlation analysis for all the variables is shown in Table 3. It examines the correlation among Performance appraisal Systems, compensation and reward, feedback, employee motivation, and retention. All of the independent variables “performance appraisal System, compensation and reward, feedback” are found significantly and positively correlated with the dependent variables “employee motivation and retention”. The results of the correlation analysis showed that there is a moderate relationship between the independent variables (performance appraisal system, compensation, and reward, feedback) and the dependent variables (employee motivation and retention). Specifically, a positive correlation was found between the performance appraisal system and employee motivation and retention, with an R-value of 0.603 and a p-value less than 0.05. Similarly, a positive correlation was observed between compensation and reward and employee motivation and retention, with an R-value of 0.578 and a p-value less than 0.05. Lastly, a positive correlation was found between feedback and employee motivation and retention, with an R-value of 0.515 and a p-value less than 0.05. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a moderate relationship between the independent variables and dependent variables, highlighting the importance of implementing an effective performance appraisal system, providing adequate compensation and rewards, and providing regular feedback to ensure employee motivation and retention in the organization. Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 10. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 17 Table 3. Correlation analysis of variables Performance appraisal system Compensation and reward Feedback Employee motivation and retention Performance Appraisal System Pearson Correlation 1 .723 ** .575 ** .603 ** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 N 110 110 110 110 Compensation And Reward Pearson Correlation .723 ** 1 .564 ** .578 ** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 N 110 110 110 110 Feedback Pearson Correlation .575 ** .564 ** 1 .515 ** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 N 110 110 110 110 Employee Motivation And Retention Pearson Correlation .603 ** .578 ** .515 ** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 N 110 110 110 110 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) 3.3 Results of the Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis 1: A proper performance appraisal system has a significant role in employee motivation and retention. The null hypothesis is “Proper performance appraisal system does not have a significant role in employee motivation and retention”. The alternative hypothesis is “A Proper performance appraisal system has a significant role in employee motivation and retention”. After conducting a one-way ANOVA analysis, the results in Table 5 showed that the F-value was 7.747, and the corresponding p-value was 0.000. Since the p-value is less than the commonly accepted significance level of 0.05, the null hypothesis can be rejected, indicating that a proper performance appraisal system plays a significant role in employee motivation and retention. Therefore, it can be concluded that having an effective performance appraisal system in place is critical for ensuring that employees are motivated and retained in the organization. Hypothesis 2: A proper performance appraisal system does not have a significant role in employee motivation and retention in the private banking industry of Bangladesh The null hypothesis is “Compensation and rewards do not have a significant role in employee motivation and retention”. The alternative hypothesis is “Compensation and rewards have a significant role in employee motivation and retention”. In Table 6 after using one-way ANOVA, F = 5.12, p-value=0.00. The p-value has been found less than 0.05. That means the null hypothesis may be rejected at a 5% level of significance. Therefore, it can be concluded that Compensation and Reward have a significant role in employee motivation and retention. Hypothesis 3: Compensation and rewards have a significant role in employee motivation and retention. The null hypothesis is “Proper feedback on employee evaluation does not have a significant role in employee motivation and retention” The alternative hypothesis is “Proper feedback on employee evaluation has a significant role in employee motivation and retention” Based on the results of the one-way ANOVA presented in Table 7, it was found that the F- value was 5.27, with a corresponding p-value of 0.000. Since the p-value is less than the commonly accepted significance level of 0.05, the null hypothesis can be rejected, indicating that Proper feedback on employee evaluation has a significant role in employee motivation and retention. Therefore, it can be concluded that providing appropriate feedback on employee Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 11. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 18 evaluations is crucial in maintaining employee motivation and retention in the organization. 3.4 Results of Regression Analysis Regression analysis is a powerful statistical tool used to explore the relationship between two or more variables of interest. This approach involves analyzing how one or more independent variables affect a dependent variable. Although there are various types of regression analysis, the fundamental objective remains the same: to investigate the nature and strength of the association between the variables under consideration. In essence, regression analysis helps researchers to better understand the dynamics between different factors and how they contribute to the overall outcome of interest. Based on the analysis of a regression model with three independent variables (Performance appraisal System, Compensation and Reward, Feedback) and a dependent variable (Employee Motivation and Retention), the results show a positive correlation (R = 0.656 or 65.6%) between the dependent variable and the independent variables. The coefficient of determination (R Square = 0.431) indicates that the independent variables explain 43.1% of the variation in the dependent variable. The Standard error of the Estimate was found to be 0.479. To determine whether the variables had a regression connection, an ANOVA table was generated. The F-ratio was used to determine the overall goodness of fit of the regression model to the data. The results suggest that the regression model is statistically significant and appropriate for the data under investigation. The ANOVA statistics shown in Table 9 indicated that the processed data had a significant level of 0.000, suggesting that the model is effective in predicting the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. This means that the study has produced statistically significant findings, as the p-value (Sig=.000) is less than .05, indicating that the results are both significant and valid. Therefore, the study has provided reliable evidence of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, which can be used to inform decision- making and improve employee motivation and retention in the private banking industries in Bangladesh. Here conduction of regression analysis is to determine the impact of the independent variables, namely the performance appraisal system, compensation and reward, and feedback, on employee motivation and retention. The analysis showed that employee motivation and retention would have a coefficient of 1.008 if the independent variables were kept constant. The results further revealed that the performance appraisal system has a significant positive relationship with employee motivation and retention, with a regression coefficient of 0.391 and a significant value of 0.05, indicating that a unit increase in the performance appraisal system leads to a 0.391 increase in employee motivation and retention. Similarly, the regression analysis showed that compensation and reward also have a positive impact on employee motivation and retention, with a regression coefficient of 0.215 and a significant value of 0.035. Thus, a unit increase in compensation and reward leads to a 0.215 increase in employee motivation and retention. Table 4. Results of hypothesis testing Hypothesis Findings 1. A proper performance appraisal system has a significant role in employee motivation and retention Accepted 2. Compensation and rewards have a significant role in employee motivation and retention Accepted 3. Proper feedback on employee evaluation has a significant role in employee motivation and retention Accepted Table 5. The one-way analysis of variance in the performance appraisal system Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig. Between Groups 13.984 12 1.165 7.747 .000 Within Groups 14.591 97 .150 Total 28.575 109 Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 12. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 19 Table 6. The one-way analysis of variance in compensation and reward Sum of squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 19.661 12 1.638 5.120 .000 Within Groups 31.038 97 .320 Total 50.698 109 Table 7. The One-way analysis of variance on Feedback Sum of squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 25.483 12 2.124 5.271 .000 Within Groups 39.083 97 .403 Total 64.566 109 Table 8. Model summary of variables Model R R square Adjusted R square Std. an error in the estimate Change statistics R square change F change df1 df2 Sig. F change .656 a .431 .415 .47915 .431 26.722 3 106 .000 a. Predictors: (Constant), Feedback, Compensation, Reward, Performance Appraisal Table 9. ANOVA Model Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig. Regression 18.405 3 6.135 26.722 .000 b Residual 24.336 106 .230 Total 42.741 109 a. Dependent Variable: Employee Motivation And Retention b. Predictors: (Constant), Feedback, Compensation, And Reward, Performance Appraisal System Table 10. Coefficients of variables Model Unstandardized coefficients Standardized coefficients T Sig. B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 1.008 .356 2.830 .006 Performance Appraisal System .391 .136 .320 2.879 .005 Compensation And Reward .215 .101 .234 2.130 .035 Feedback .162 .075 .199 2.146 .034 a. Dependent Variable: Employee Motivation And Retention Moreover, we found that feedback in the performance appraisal process positively affects employee motivation and retention, with a regression coefficient of 0.162 and a significant value of 0.034. Hence, given a unit increase in feedback in the performance appraisal process, employee motivation and retention would increase by 0.162 times. In conclusion, the regression analysis supported the positive impact of the independent variables, performance appraisal system, compensation and reward, and feedback, on employee motivation and retention. The study recommends that organizations should focus on implementing an effective performance appraisal system that incorporates compensation and reward and feedback to increase employee motivation and retention. 4. CONCLUSIONS Proper performance appraisal is a crucial factor in achieving productive employees, competitive advantage, and sustainable growth in the marketplace. Without an efficient performance appraisal system, compensation and reward schemes, and a well-structured feedback policy, businesses cannot expect to receive the best output from their employees. These three elements are positively correlated with employee motivation and retention, which is now Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 13. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 20 recognized as an organization's most valuable resource for competitiveness in the business sector. Recruitment and retention of the appropriate talent remain a significant challenge for organizations, and an effective performance assessment system is one of the tools that businesses may use to retain their human assets. This study aimed to examine the impact of proper performance appraisal on employee motivation and retention in the private banking industry of Bangladesh. The study analyzed the relationship between the performance appraisal system, compensation and rewards, and feedback to motivate and retain employees. The focus of this research was to investigate whether a well-structured performance appraisal system can lead to increased employee motivation and retention in the private banking industries of Bangladesh. The results from this study revealed that a positive correlation exists between the performance appraisal system, compensation, rewards, and feedback policies, and increased employee motivation and retention. The findings of the correlation analysis showed a significant positive relationship between these factors. In conclusion, the implementation of an efficient performance appraisal system that includes compensation and rewards, as well as feedback, is essential for employee motivation and retention in the private banking industry of Bangladesh. Banks must recognize the significance of their human assets and implement effective performance assessment systems to retain them. By doing so, banks can achieve productive employees, competitive advantage, and sustainable growth in the marketplace 5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION The study at hand primarily focuses on the impact of effectiveness performance appraisal on employee motivation and retention in private commercial banks in Bangladesh. However, future research could be in public commercial banks. Further research into these practices might be done by conducting comparisons between public and private commercial banks in Bangladesh. Without this future research may be based on effectively managing a performance appraisal system which may also include additional areas or nations with comparable situations to get over the study's geographical limitations. Overall, there is a variety of ways that additional research might expand on the results of this investigation. 6. MANAGERIAL AND POLICY IMPLICA- TIONS As the study on the impact of effectiveness performance appraisal systems on employee motivation and retention in the private banking industry of Bangladesh has several managerial and policy implications, including: Effective performance assessment systems are a tool that managers in Bangladesh's private banking sector may utilize to increase employee engagement and retention. Managers may provide employees with a clear picture of their performance goals and reward them for surpassing or meeting them by conducting honest and efficient performance appraisals. Effective performance assessment systems may be implemented with the help of policies relating to compensation and rewards. Government agencies or business associations might establish policies or rules requiring private financial institutions to carry out frequent, fair performance reviews and to offer rewards to those institutions that commit to good performance management. To support the effectiveness of appraisal systems, managers and employees can receive appropriate feedback on the system. Overall, the results of this study point to the possibility that the private banking industry in Bangladesh might greatly benefit from using efficient performance assessment systems to raise employee motivation and retention. However, careful planning, strong support, a dedication to continuing review, and improvement are necessary for the effective deployment of these systems. COMPETING INTERESTS Authors have declared that no competing interests exist. REFERENCES 1. Okolie UC. Performance appraisal and its effect on employee’s job performance in Edo State Internal Revenue Service, Benin City, Nigeria. International Journal of New Economics and Social Sciences. 2020;11:93-116. 2. Zedeck S. Performance appraisal decisions as a function of rater training and purpose of the appraisal. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1982; 67(6):752. Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 14. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 21 3. Esther WA. Performance appraisal and its effect on employees performance: A case of GCB Bank (Koforidua). Performance Appraisal And Its Effect on Employees Performance: A case of GCB Bank (KOFORIDUA). Koforidua, Ghana; 2019. 4. Anjum N. Performance appraisal and promotion practices of public commercial banks in Bangladesh-A case study on ACR method. SEISENSE Journal of Management. 2021;4(3):1-16. 5. Islam MA. The effect of management by objectives on performance appraisal and employee satisfaction in commercial banks. Journal of Social and Development Sciences. 2020;32(6):4-23. 6. Al-Jedaia Y. The effect of performance appraisal on job performance in governmental sector: The mediating role of motivation. Management Science Letters. 2020;10(9):2077-2088. 7. Setiawati T. Influence of performance appraisal fairness and job satisfaction through commitment on job performance. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research. 2020;9(3):133-151. 8. Ugoani J. Performance appraisal and its effect on employees’ productivity in charitable organizations. Business, Management and Economics Research. 2020;6(12):166-175. 9. Upadhyay RK. Performance appraisal and team effectiveness: a moderated mediation model of employee retention and employee satisfaction. Vision. 2020;24(4):395-405. 10. Ahmad AD. A Comparative study of banking industry based on appraisal system, rewards and employee performance. SEISENSE Journal of Management. 2019;2(1):1-11. 11. Aleem M. Role of performance appraisal on employee retention and organizational commitment in the banking sector of Pakistan. Journal of the Punjab University Historical Society. 2019;32(1). 12. Vashistha N. Role of performance appraisal in motivation of bank employees. IOSR Journal of Business and Management. 2018;20(7):66-71. 13. Nawaz MS. The effect of fairness of performance appraisal and career growth on turnover intention. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS). 2016;10(1):27-44. 14. Kabir MA. Performance Appraisal of Commercial Bank’s Executives: A Study of Selected Private Commercial Banks in Bangladesh. 4th International Conference on Managing Human Resources at The Workplace; 2015, December. 15. Rahim SA. Performance appraisal systems in private banks of Bangladesh: a study on the Mercantile Bank Limited. The Business & Management Review. 2012;3(1):27. 16. Aktar SS. The impact of rewards on employee performance in commercial banks of Bangladesh. IOSR Journal of Business and Management. 2012;6(2):9- 15. 17. Daoanis LE. Performance appraisal system: It’s implication to employee performance. International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences. 2012;2(3):55-62. 18. Hafiza NS. Relationship between rewards and employee motivation in the non-profit organizations of Pakistan. Business Intelligence Journal. 2011;4(2):327-334. 19. Rubel MR. Perceived fairness of performance appraisal, promotion opportunity and nurses turnover intention: The role of organizational commitment. Asian Social Science. 2015;11(9):183. 20. Hossain MA. Performance appraisal & promotion practices on private commercial bank in Bangladesh: A case study from Pubali Bank Ltd. Asian Business Review. 2012;1(1):49-55. 21. Huda KN. Exploring the significant factors of employee performance management system in commercial banks: A multivariate analysis. Journal of Management Sciences. 2020;7(2):68-83. 22. Gulzar SA. Impact of performance appraisal on employee retention: A study on banking sector of Pakistan. Journal of Independent Studies & Research: Management & Social Sciences & Economics. 2017;15(1). 23. Ramlall S. A review of employee motivation theories and their implications for employee retention within organizations. Journal of American Academy of Business. 2004;5(1/2):52- 63. 24. Salman AA. Factors affecting on employees retention in banking sector: An investigation from Karachi. European Journal of Business and Management. 2014;6(37):2222-1905. Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 15. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 22 APPENDIX a- Gender Fig. 1. Gender of the Respondents b- Experience Fig. 2. Experience of the Respondents c- Appraisal Methods Fig. 3. Appraisal Methods Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
  • 16. Hossain and Islam; J. Econ. Manage. Trade, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 8-23, 2023; Article no.JEMT.99322 23 d- Traditional Appraisal Methods Fig. 4. Traditional Appraisal Methods e- Modern Appraisal Methods Fig. 5. Modern Appraisal Methods ________________________________________________________________________________ ? 2023 Hossain and Islam; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Peer-review history: The peer review history for this paper can be accessed here: https://www.sdiarticle5.com/review-history/99322 Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458410
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