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Memory & CVLT Brooke Schauder, PhD
Subtypes of Memory Short Term: Temporary storage while it is being processed (1-2 – 20 seconds for auditory information) less for visual Working Memory: Manipulating  information: limited to 7 +- 2 Long Term: Permanent storage with unlimited capacity
Types of Long Term Memory Explicit: Factual (names, dates, phone numbers) Can be learned as well as forgotten rapidly Dependent on hippocampus/temporal lobe Implicit:  Procedural, less conscious, learned slowly with repetition/practice, less easily forgotten
3 Basic Components of Learning/Memory Encoding (learning): Transformation of a sensory input into meaningful information that can be cognitively held Storage: Holding or retaining information Retrieval (recall): Process by which stored information is extracted from memory
What We Remember Read Only : 10% Hear Only:  20% Observe Only: 30% Observe and Hear: 50% Discuss: 70% Experience: 80%  Teach: 90%
Life Time Trajectory Memory peaks between age 20-40 Memory for SEQUENCES first declines with age, then memory for CONTENT
Primacy and Recency Effects Primacy: Recalling information from the beginning of a list Recency:  Recalling information from the end of a list
Common Causes of Memory Problems General Medical Condition (e.g. hypertension) Drugs/Medications Normal Aging Poor attention and concentration Vision or Hearing Loss Depression and Anxiety
Purpose of California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II) Can distinguish between learning/attention problem and memory impairment Ability to learn and retain verbal information Differentiation between depression and neurological disorders (e.g. Alzheimer’s) Detecting Brain Damage in patients with TBI, drug abuse, and other brain damage Characterizing memory profiles in patients with schizophrenia, depression, LD, etc. Detection of inadequate effort or malingering
CVLT-II Can be administered to people between ages 16 and 89. Approximately 45 minutes total admin. time with delay Child format for individuals ages 5-16:  CVLT-C
Administration Read list in 18 – 20 seconds (slightly faster than 1 word/minute Wait 15 seconds after person has stopped, ask if they have any more, and mark Q on the record form when this takes place During delay of 20 minutes, must administer NON-VERBAL assessments only
Errors and Scoring Intrusion Error (commission type): Word not from list A word can be both an intrusion and a repetition and have double error If person repeats word and is self-cue(reminding self), do NOT record or count as error If unclear, ask patient if they have said that work or not – have them tell you and you cannot tell them whether they have or not Count as error of repetition if they have said the word already
Intrusion Errors Category Intrusion: word that is semantically related to one of the 4 categories, such as “snap pea” Non-Category Intrusion: not – related (“flip-flop”) aka “confabulation” Synonym/Subordinate: such as “bookshelf” for “bookcase” Across list intrusion: (list A interferes with list B) (cannot have these errors on trials 1-5)
Interpretation List A, trial 1: index of auditory attention Those with impaired attention or Anxiety/Depression (ADHD) poor trial 1, but normal to above average learning slope Most people have comparable raw and standardized scores on List A, trial 1 with DS Forward on WAIS/WISC
Memory Strategies used in CVLT-II Semantic Clustering (computerized scoring can generate whether a person did this or not) -remembers words in categories -This is an EFFECTIVE strategy Serial Clustering (less effective strategy) person may be “stimulus bound” (more in Parkinson’s)  - Recency Effects: also stimulus bound individuals -Recency Effects also occur in people with severe encoding (learning) deficits
Interpretation Most people have primacy, rather than recency effect Recall Consistency: poor consistency of words learned across trials may represent haphazard or disorganized learning (see handout and “artistic graphs” for more interpretive information

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Memory & cvlt

  • 1. Memory & CVLT Brooke Schauder, PhD
  • 2. Subtypes of Memory Short Term: Temporary storage while it is being processed (1-2 – 20 seconds for auditory information) less for visual Working Memory: Manipulating information: limited to 7 +- 2 Long Term: Permanent storage with unlimited capacity
  • 3. Types of Long Term Memory Explicit: Factual (names, dates, phone numbers) Can be learned as well as forgotten rapidly Dependent on hippocampus/temporal lobe Implicit: Procedural, less conscious, learned slowly with repetition/practice, less easily forgotten
  • 4. 3 Basic Components of Learning/Memory Encoding (learning): Transformation of a sensory input into meaningful information that can be cognitively held Storage: Holding or retaining information Retrieval (recall): Process by which stored information is extracted from memory
  • 5. What We Remember Read Only : 10% Hear Only: 20% Observe Only: 30% Observe and Hear: 50% Discuss: 70% Experience: 80% Teach: 90%
  • 6. Life Time Trajectory Memory peaks between age 20-40 Memory for SEQUENCES first declines with age, then memory for CONTENT
  • 7. Primacy and Recency Effects Primacy: Recalling information from the beginning of a list Recency: Recalling information from the end of a list
  • 8. Common Causes of Memory Problems General Medical Condition (e.g. hypertension) Drugs/Medications Normal Aging Poor attention and concentration Vision or Hearing Loss Depression and Anxiety
  • 9. Purpose of California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II) Can distinguish between learning/attention problem and memory impairment Ability to learn and retain verbal information Differentiation between depression and neurological disorders (e.g. Alzheimer’s) Detecting Brain Damage in patients with TBI, drug abuse, and other brain damage Characterizing memory profiles in patients with schizophrenia, depression, LD, etc. Detection of inadequate effort or malingering
  • 10. CVLT-II Can be administered to people between ages 16 and 89. Approximately 45 minutes total admin. time with delay Child format for individuals ages 5-16: CVLT-C
  • 11. Administration Read list in 18 – 20 seconds (slightly faster than 1 word/minute Wait 15 seconds after person has stopped, ask if they have any more, and mark Q on the record form when this takes place During delay of 20 minutes, must administer NON-VERBAL assessments only
  • 12. Errors and Scoring Intrusion Error (commission type): Word not from list A word can be both an intrusion and a repetition and have double error If person repeats word and is self-cue(reminding self), do NOT record or count as error If unclear, ask patient if they have said that work or not – have them tell you and you cannot tell them whether they have or not Count as error of repetition if they have said the word already
  • 13. Intrusion Errors Category Intrusion: word that is semantically related to one of the 4 categories, such as “snap pea” Non-Category Intrusion: not – related (“flip-flop”) aka “confabulation” Synonym/Subordinate: such as “bookshelf” for “bookcase” Across list intrusion: (list A interferes with list B) (cannot have these errors on trials 1-5)
  • 14. Interpretation List A, trial 1: index of auditory attention Those with impaired attention or Anxiety/Depression (ADHD) poor trial 1, but normal to above average learning slope Most people have comparable raw and standardized scores on List A, trial 1 with DS Forward on WAIS/WISC
  • 15. Memory Strategies used in CVLT-II Semantic Clustering (computerized scoring can generate whether a person did this or not) -remembers words in categories -This is an EFFECTIVE strategy Serial Clustering (less effective strategy) person may be “stimulus bound” (more in Parkinson’s) - Recency Effects: also stimulus bound individuals -Recency Effects also occur in people with severe encoding (learning) deficits
  • 16. Interpretation Most people have primacy, rather than recency effect Recall Consistency: poor consistency of words learned across trials may represent haphazard or disorganized learning (see handout and “artistic graphs” for more interpretive information
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